Sugar is not just sweet inert substances and molecules, which interact strongly with the receptors of sweet taste, which are located in many organs. This can lead to a number of serious side effects. We should not deceive ourselves – it is harmful to health
The main problem with sugar substitutes is that they are effective sweeteners: aspartame 250, saccharin 520 times sweeter than sucrose. Sounds strange? Let me explain. So, the sweet taste perceived in a specific cellular receptor for sweet substances is a dimer of two receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3. If this receptor were only language, then the problems would not have happened.
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But the problem is that the sweet receptor is located in many other organs (see picture). Soaked, intense sweeteners bind to receptors of sweet taste in the pancreas, brain, blood vessels, bones, stomach, intestines, adipose tissue. (Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014 Jul; 17(4): 379-385.Functional roles of the sweet taste receptor in oral and extraoral circumferential surface of tissues).
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Thus, the outwardly harmless substances significantly change the secretion of intestinal hormones that disrupt the expression of proteins, glucose transporters even in the absence of sugar affects insulin secretion and glucose levels in the blood, T1R3 is in the stomach, ghrelin-producing cells, their excessive stimulation enhances appetite.
It is not surprising that the sweeteners increase the risk of diabetes (Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 97, Issue 3, 1 March 2013, Pages 517-523).
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Sweet receptors in the bones and adipose tissues also play an important role. Sucralose stimulates the appearance of new fat cells and the accumulation of fat droplets. (Cell Metabolism VOLUME 24, ISSUE 1, P75-90, JULY 12, 2016 Sucralose Promotes Food Intake through NPY Neuronal and a Fasting Response).Excessive stimulation of bone receptors can lead to osteoporosis. There are receptors for sweet in the bladder. So many sweeteners, for example saccharin, increase the tone and contraction of the bladder.
The nutritional status of the organism is associated with the sweet receptors in the brain. Receptors for sweet are located in the hypothalamus on neurons and are involved in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism (“Sweet taste receptor in the hypothalamus: a potential new player in glucose sensing in the hypothalamus”. 2017 The Journal of Physiological Sciences. 67 (4): 459-465.). Activation of receptors for sweets leads to a reduction of blood flow in the vessels of the brain. Therefore, the sweeteners increase the incidence of stroke and neurodegenerative diseases.
Even if a person keeps to myself and does not transmit against the background of the eating sugar substitutes he is suffering from constant hunger. From consuming a lot of sweeteners disrupted the normal perception of sweet taste, and is suffering the dopamine system of the brain (Altered processing of sweet taste in the brain of diet soda drinkers, Physiology & Behavior, 107 (4) 560-567. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.05.006).
Conclusion. Sugar is not just sweet inert substances and molecules, which interact strongly with the receptors of sweet taste, which are located in many organs. This can lead to a number of serious side effects. We should not deceive ourselves – it is harmful to health.published econet.ru.
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