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There is a perception that a fat-soluble vitamin D is better absorbed from the oil solution. But the aqueous solution is not worse absorbed by the body due to the fact that the formation of a solution of the molecule of vitamin D into micelles (spherical clusters), which are easily absorbed in the small intestine regardless of the allocation of bile acids, while to emulsify the fats in the oil solution is necessary for proper functioning of the gallbladder, fats always require the presence of bile acids.

Absolute outlier in a series of vitamins is vitamin D. Rather, it is not a vitamin, but a hormone-like substance. Vitamins are called organic compounds that we need in very small quantities for normal metabolism and vital functions. Basically, vitamins are precursors of coenzymes that is necessary for the implementation of enzymatic reactions.

About vitamin D: How to assess the security of human vitamin D?

  • What categories of the population most susceptible to development of vitamin D deficiency?
  • What drugs can be taken and how to avoid Hypervitaminosis?
  • Do I need a sample of Sulkowice while taking vitamin D?
  • Dispelling the myths about vitamin D

However, vitamin D is not a cofactor of any of the known enzymes, unlike most vitamins. It is, as mentioned above, this hormone. The same hormones — these are substances that produce endocrine glands (or cells), through the bloodstream they are transported to organs and tissues where they affect the structure or affect the underlying nature of the function. Ie, they help organs and tissues to function properly.

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The activity of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) found in more than 30 different organs and tissues, in particular:

  • in the skin,
  • muscle fibers
  • pancreas,
  • the organs of the reproductive and endocrine systems,
  • on cells of the immune system.

Sinteziruemy in an inactive state, vitamin D undergoes a series of biochemical reactions resulting in the formation of its active metabolite exerting all the influence on organs and tissues. Its impact on the above processes vitamin D has on the genome level. It is known that cholecalciferol, or rather its active form calcitriol is able to regulate the activity of more than 200 genes.

The studies have shown that high levels of cholecalciferol are able to exert a protective and preventive effect against some cancers. In particular, the prevalence of breast cancer in women living in conditions of sufficient solar radiation, significantly lower than in the case of shortage of solar radiation, and the survival rate of patients with the development of the disease can be increased by an additional assigned 800 IU of vitamin D daily.

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Discovered protective (protective) effect of vitamin D in colon cancer, osteosarcoma (malignant bone tumor), melanoma, pancreatic cancer, liver, kidney.

How to evaluate the security of human vitamin D?

Most of the researchers whose work was associated with vitamin D is the most informative to determine the content of the transport form — 25(OH)D in the venous blood. The study is carried out on an empty stomach in the morning, normal supply of vitamin D is considered to be the concentration above 30 ng/ml.

  • Vitamin D insufficiency — 25(OH)D 20-29 ng/ml,
  • vitamin D deficiency – 25(OH)D 10-19 ng/ml,
  • profound vitamin D deficiency (avitaminosis) – level 25(OH)D < 10 ng/ml.

Based on the literature data, the excess is considered the level of vitamin D in the blood is above 150-200 ng/ml.

What categories of the population most susceptible to development of vitamin D deficiency?

The factors that determine the risk of low provision of vitamin D include the following:

  • the geography of the place of residence – at-risk people living in Northern latitudes;
  • the season of year – winter, spring
  • the intensity of skin pigmentation – the darker the skin, the slower synthesis of vitamin D;
  • nutritive (food) status – overweight people experience a greater deficit;
  • the presence of concomitant diseases;
  • chronic liver disease or kidney;
  • drugs, violate the metabolism of vitamin D (e.g., rifampicin, isoniazid and anticonvulsants);
  • violation of intestinal function with malabsorption;
  • older people have an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency, because over time, the skin gradually loses the ability to synthesize vitamin D. in addition, people of this age most of the time located in the premises;
  • people with limited sun exposure. Persons who are required to wear for religious reasons, long clothing, hats, and also have a profession that does not allow sufficient time to stay in the sun, can’t get an adequate amount of vitamin D as a result of sun exposure;
  • using alternative diets or changes in dietary patterns (for example, with the exception of foods of animal origin).

What drugs can be taken and how to avoid Hypervitaminosis?

A couple of decades ago used alcoholic solutions of vitamin D, but quickly stopped this practice because of the possibility of the development of hypervitaminosis, symptoms of which you should know:

  • loss of appetite,
  • sleep disturbance,
  • possible vomiting,
  • the decrease in muscle tone.

All these symptoms are caused by increased levels of calcium in the blood and occur only when the dosage of vitamin D is greater than the assigned 5-10 times. Even if the vitamin D level of 100-120 ng/ml these signs are not observed, and in the absence of constant preventive admission 25(OH)D level of this metabolite in the blood is less than 20 ng/ml, therefore, the old saying “better to light rickets, hypervitaminosis D than” not very important, of course, if you follow the guidelines and do not violate them. Currently in pharmacies there oil and aqueous solutions of vitamin D.

There is a perception that a fat-soluble vitamin D is better absorbed from the oil solution. But the aqueous solution is not worse absorbed by the body due to the fact that the formation of a solution of the molecule of vitamin D into micelles (spherical clusters), which are easily absorbed in the small intestine regardless of the allocation of bile acids, while to emulsify the fats in the oil solution is necessary for proper functioning of the gallbladder, fats always require the presence of bile acids.

Also, there are drugs with active vitamin D that should be taken only on prescription and in patients receiving twice a week to monitor the level of calcium in the blood. These drugs are prescribed for patients with a defect in the enzyme systems involved in the conversion of cholecalciferol.

Do I need a sample of Sulkowice while taking vitamin D?

Trial of Sulkowice laboratory is semi-quantitative, that is, the result is given not numerical, but expressed in number of characters “+”, the determination of the content of calcium in the urine. The result of this analysis practically does not reflect the adequacy of the dose cholecalciferol for a particular patient.

The content of calcium in the urine and, respectively, in the patient’s blood can affect several groups of factors should take into account all possible causes of a change of probe results. To assess the adequacy of the dose of vitamin D should only take a blood test on the contents of the transport form of vitamin 25(OH)D.

Dispelling the myths about vitamin D

Myth # 1. Vitamin D, like other vitamins, is found in foods, therefore, additionally, it can not accept.

According to the Federal state statistics service, consumption of food sources of vitamin D children do not reach the recommended norms, and therefore, can not adequately fill the need for vitamin D. For example, in order to provide the body with vitamin D, the appropriate daily requirement of substance, a man must eat 10 yolks of eggs and 3 cans of canned salmon. Obviously this is hardly possible.

Myth # 2. Vitamin D is necessary only for children and only for improving bone strength.

The prevalence of insufficiency calzidiola among school-age children, according to domestic research: only 5.2% of students 11-18 years of age have a normal vitamin D status (Medical Council No. 9, 2017, p.139).

Correction of status of vitamin D – the potential for prevention of many chronic diseases because of the representation of receptors for vitamin D in many organs and tissues of the body. Compensation of vitamin D deficiency boosts the cognitive potential of children and adolescents, and thus affects the quality and effectiveness of learning. That is why the recommendations for dosage of vitamin D for all population groups, the following is an example.

(Pludowski P., Karczmarewicz E., Bayer M., Carter G., Chlebna-Sokol D., Czech-Kowalska J., et al. Practical guidelines for the supplementation of vitamin D and the treatment of deficits in 28 Central Europe – recommended vitamin D intakes in the general population and groups at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Endokrynologia Polska. 2013; 64 (4): 319-327).

A great achievement of science is the discovery naselennyh manifestations of the effects of calcitriol on body functions, thus, it has:

  • immunomodulatory,
  • antitumor,
  • anti-inflammatory effect.

Target cells (i.e. those cells, interacts with vitamin D) to calcitriol are present in: adipose tissue, adrenal gland, bone, mammary glands, skin, smooth muscle tissue, ovaries, pancreas, colon, placenta, pituitary gland, hypothalamus, salivary glands, parathyroid glands, prostate gland, hair follicles, the sheaths of testes, small intestine, kidney, liver, lung, myocardium, thymus, thyroid, uterus, stomach. Withso, vitamin D deficiency will have a negative impact on the work of these organs and tissues.

One should clearly understand the differences between the concept of hypovitaminosis D, which is the subject of this article, and the concept of “rickets”. By definition, V. B. Spirichev, rickets – a disease caused by a temporary mismatch between the needs of the growing organism in calcium and phosphorus and deficiency of systems providing their delivery in an organism of the child.

Myth # 3. In the summer vitamin D is formed in skin exposed to UV rays, therefore, to take drugs is inappropriate.

The question of synthesis in the skin vitamin D is not as straightforward as it should take into account a number of factors:

  • the rate of formation of cholecalciferol in the skin is really quite large and exposed to a rigid regulation, but its effectiveness is significantly affected by the level of air pollution, climate, skin pigmentation, latitude;
  • the highest intensity of formation of vitamin D by the skin is detected in the summer months from 11 to 14 hours, but stay in the sun without using sunscreen at this time of day is unsafe for the skin, is a risk factor for development of melanoma;
  • according to numerous studies during the summer months, the vast majority of the population does not make up for the need for vitamin D due to sun exposure, and in the winter-spring period people are in short supply or even a deep deficiency of cholecalciferol.

Myth # 4. You can only take fish oil that is the source of vitamin D

Fish oil in liquid form or in capsules is undoubtedly a very important biological additive as a source of fatty acids, but to provide by taking fish oil necessary and sufficient dosage of vitamin D is not possible due to its low content in the preparations.published econet.ru.

Ekaterina Solovieva

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