Hormones — biologically active substances that are produced by the body and regulate many vital processes. Some hormones are able to act not only in the circulatory system — they penetrate through the blood-brain barrier and in the Central nervous system work as neurotransmitters. That is, transmit impulses along the nerve cells, thereby affecting human behavior. Moreover, the impact may be permanent and temporary.
Mood swings, depression or frequent insomnia — reason to check the hormones. It was under the influence of person experiences positive and negative emotions. If the body is disturbed hormonal balance, this may impact not only on physical condition but also emotional. Let us understand what hormones affect the character.
Basic human hormones: how hormones influence mood and character
- How hormones affect the psychology and character
- Symptoms of hormonal imbalance
- Sex hormones and their role in psychological health
- Adrenal hormones: dopamine and adrenaline
- Other hormones: thyroxine, oxytocin, serotonin
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How hormones affect the psychology and character
Hormones — biologically active substances that are produced by the body and regulate many vital processes. Sinteziruemy mainly in the endocrine glands, they are released into the bloodstream, it is transferred to the so-called target cells, where exhibit its effect.
Thus, hormones affect various processes of the metabolism — increase or decrease the absorption of substances that maintain the balance between muscle, fat and bone tissue, provide the growth and development of the body.
However, some hormones can act not only in the circulatory system — they penetrate through the blood-brain barrier and in the Central nervous system (CNS) work as a neurotransmitter. That is, transmit impulses along the nerve cells, thereby affecting human behavior. Moreover, the impact may be permanent and temporary.
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For example, the adrenal hormone epinephrine only for a short time changes a person’s reactions, and normally after the release of blood the level should quickly decrease. The level of the other, on the contrary, should be relatively stable because they are responsible for stress tolerance, social contacts, mood and so on.
Symptoms of hormonal imbalance
Hormones-neurotransmitters always take part in other important processes in the body. Balance disorders are not confined to the emotional sphere, and affect overall health. That is why the following symptoms is reason enough to visit endocrinologist, examination and possible treatment.
- Irritability, easy excitability.
- General emotional instability, mood swings.
- Sleep disorders, including nervous insomnia.
- Bad concentration.
- Mistrust of others, excessive jealousy.
- Bad social adaptation.
- Apathy, depression.
- Excessive aggression in girls and softness, pliability in boys (sex homone).
- Depression, including seasonal.
Along with such violations of the emotional sphere, hormonal disruptions often manifest physiological signs:
- Overweight or, on the contrary, unnatural thinness.
- Of impaired growth.
- Delay of sexual development.
- Problems with the cardiovascular system, including palpitations or arrhythmia.
- Swelling of all kinds.
- Violation of the gastrointestinal tract.
Sex hormones and their role in psychological health
Sex hormones are divided into male and female. Their main task is puberty of the body, development of secondary sexual characteristics. However, in addition to physiology, androgens and estrogens affect traits. Moreover, despite the division by sex, either the body produces female and male hormones. Therefore, the manifestation of unusual sex traits may indicate an excess of other hormones.
- Androgens (especially testosterone) are responsible for masculine qualities — that under their action, develop physical strength, confidence in their actions and leadership. With increased testosterone people may be aggressive, to be in conflict, it is easy to succumb to provocations.
- Estrogens (the active — estradiol), on the contrary, affect the development of such characteristics as softness, pliability. It is connected including with the fact that female sex hormones can lower the levels of thyroxine, a hormone, an overabundance of which causes irritability.
Adrenal hormones: dopamine and adrenaline
The adrenal glands are small paired glands, which play an important role in the formation of character and the emotional reactions of the person. It is here produced is important in this respect, the hormones dopamine and adrenaline.
- Dopamine is responsible for feelings of pleasure. It is important for the “reward system” of the brain, which shapes human preferences. The active hormone is released when a person is engaged in something nice, the feeling is fixed in the brain, and later this memory makes her return to the beloved.
Thanks to dopamine, we choose a hobby, are determined by preferences in food, rest and other things. It can be used to instill good habits, however, and dependence are also associated with it. As a hormone of the adrenal gland, dopamine is the precursor to norepinephrine, which in turn is synthesized adrenaline.
- Adrenaline — hormone rapid actions. It is released into the bloodstream in situations of life-threatening, in severe injuries, as well as for stress and emotional turmoil (positive and negative). The adrenaline dulls the sense of fear, increases the speed of reactions and mental activity, additionally, it helps to perceive the world brighter.
That is why these adrenal hormones is often a cause of conditional dependence on the background of the action of adrenaline felt a surge of strength, mood enhancement, euphoria. If life is not enough positive experiences, people can provoke the release of adrenaline, extreme Hobbies, and various life-threatening situations, frequent quarrels, or even dependencies.
Since adrenal hormones are produced in certain external conditions, a person can consciously use them to develop useful habits. For example, dopamine, and epinephrine are synthesized when playing your favorite sport.
Other hormones: thyroxine, oxytocin, serotonin
Among other hormones, acting as neurotransmitters, it is important to note the following:
- Thyroxine is one of the main hormones of the thyroid gland. Its high level provokes irritation, but low can cause fatigue, depression. Moreover, such emotions occur even in infants with congenital disorders of the thyroid gland.
- Oxytocin — the hormone of the hypothalamic-pituitary system, which is responsible for tenderness and affection. Most is produced during childbirth, under its action formed a bond between mother and child. It is synthesized and when people are nice to talk to, hug, hold hands. The instinct of caring for offspring and willingness to sacrifice oxytocin plays a key role. It is important in social psychology with a sufficient level of oxytocin people are easier to contact, are able to tie a friendship to build a lasting relationship.
- Serotonin — the hormone of happiness, it is responsible for the feeling of joy, good mood, vivacity and inflow of forces. It is noteworthy that he produced under the influence of bright light, so people who often go outdoors, are less inclined to apathy and low spirits. On cloudy days the production of serotonin decreases, which often leads to seasonal depression. Of serotonin is synthesized in the night, melatonin, which is responsible for the periodicity of sleep and wakefulness, affect the other hormones and prevents premature aging. And if “happiness hormone” is not enough, and melatonin will be synthesized with disabilities. Therefore, a good mood really is inextricably linked with health and longevity.published econet.ru.
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